Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

What is AI?

  • Artificial Intelligence is the ability of a computer, or a robot controlled by a computer, to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human intelligence and discernment.
  • Although there is no AI that can perform the wide variety of tasks an ordinary human can do, some AI can match humans in specific tasks.

Characteristics & Components:

  • The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal. A subset of AI is Machine Learning (ML).
  • Deep Learning (DL) techniques enable this automatic learning through the absorption of huge amounts of unstructured data such as text, images, or video.

What are the Differences Between AI, ML, and DL?

  • The term AI, coined in the 1950s, refers to the simulation of human intelligence by machines. AI, ML and DL are common terms and are sometimes used interchangeably. But there are distinctions.
  • ML is a subset of AI that involves the development of algorithms that allow computers to learn from data without being explicitly programmed.
  • ML algorithms can analyze data, identify patterns, and make predictions based on the patterns they find.
  • DL is a subset of ML that uses artificial neural networks to learn from data in a way that is similar to how the human brain learns.

What are the Different Categories of AI?

Artificial intelligence can be divided into two different categories:

Weak AI/ Narrow AI

  • It is a type of AI that is limited to a specific or narrow area. Weak AI simulates human cognition.
  • It has the potential to benefit society by automating time-consuming tasks and analyzing data in ways that humans sometimes can’t.
  • For example, video games such as chess and personal assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri.

Strong AI

  • These are systems that carry on tasks considered to be human-like. These tend to be more complex and complicated systems.
  • They are programmed to handle situations in which they may be required to problem-solve without having a person intervene.
  • These kinds of systems can be found in applications like self-driving cars.

What are the Different Types of AI?

Reactive AI

  • It uses algorithms to optimize outputs based on a set of inputs. Chess-playing AI, for example, are reactive systems that optimize the best strategy to win the game.
  • Reactive AI tends to be fairly static, unable to learn or adapt to novel situations. Thus, it will produce the same output given identical inputs.

Limited Memory AI

  • It can adapt to past experiences or update itself based on new observations or data. Often, the amount of updating is limited, and the length of memory is relatively short.
  • Autonomous vehicles, for example, can read the road and adapt to novel situations, even learning from past experience.

Theory-of-mind AI

  • They are fully adaptive and have an extensive ability to learn and retain past experiences. These types of AI include advanced chat-bots that could pass the Turing Test, fooling a person into believing the AI was a human being.
  • A Turing test is a method of inquiry in AI for determining whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human being.

Self-aware AI

As the name suggests, they become sentient and aware of their own existence. Still, in the realm of science fiction, some experts believe that an AI will never become conscious or alive.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Difference Between Augmented Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence?

The Difference in Focus

  • Artificial Intelligence is focused on creating machines that can perform tasks autonomously, without human intervention. On the other hand, Augmented Intelligence is the use of technology to enhance human intelligence rather than replace it.
  • Augmented Intelligence systems are designed to work alongside humans to improve their ability to perform tasks.

The Difference in Goal

  • AI aims to create machines that can perform tasks that require human intelligence, such as decision-making and problem-solving.
  • The goal of Augmented Intelligence, on the other hand, is to enhance human capabilities by providing them with tools and technologies that can help them make better decisions and solve problems more efficiently.

What are the Applications of AI in Different Sectors?


  • It aims to enhance diagnosis accuracy, enable personalized treatment, improve patient outcomes, streamline healthcare operations, and accelerate medical research and innovation.
  • Recently, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) issued a guiding document- “The Ethical Guidelines for Application of AI in Biomedical Research and Health care”, which outlines 10 key patient-centric ethical principles for AI application in the health sector.


AI in the business sector helps optimize operations, enhance decision-making, automate repetitive tasks, improve customer service, enable personalized marketing, analyze big data for insights, detect fraud and cybersecurity threats, streamline supply chain management, and drive innovation and competitiveness.


  • AI could open new possibilities for innovative and personalized approaches catering to different learning abilities.
  • IIT Kharagpur has collaborated with Amazon Web Services to develop the National AI Resource Platform (NAIRP), the future possibilities of which include monitoring eye movement, motion and other parameters for better teaching and learning.
  • As demonstrated by ChatGPT, Bard, and other large language models, generative AI can help educators and engage students in new ways.


  • It is used to improve legal research and analysis, automate documentation and case management, enhance court processes and scheduling, facilitate online dispute resolution, assist in legal decision-making through predictive analytics, and increase access to justice by providing virtual legal assistance and resources.
  • SUVAS (Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad Software): It is an AI system that can assist in the translation of judgments into regional languages. This is another landmark effort to increase access to justice.
  • SUPACE (Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court Efficiency): It was recently launched by the Supreme Court of India.


It is used in security and cybersecurity to detect and prevent cyber threats, identify anomalous activities, analyze large volumes of data for patterns and vulnerabilities, enhance network and endpoint security, automate threat response and incident management, strengthen authentication and access control, and provide real-time threat intelligence and predictive analytics for proactive defense against cyber attacks.

What are the Advantages of AI?

  • Enhanced Accuracy: AI algorithms can analyze vast amounts of data with precision, reducing errors and improving accuracy in various applications, such as diagnostics, predictions, and decision-making.
  • Improved Decision-Making: AI provides data-driven insights and analysis, assisting in informed decision-making by identifying patterns, trends, and potential risks that may not be easily identifiable to humans.
  • Innovation and Discovery: AI fosters innovation by enabling new discoveries, uncovering hidden insights, and pushing the boundaries of what is possible in various fields, including healthcare, science, and technology.
  • Increased Productivity: AI tools and systems can augment human capabilities, leading to increased productivity and output across various industries and sectors.
  • Continuous Learning and Adaptability: AI systems can learn from new data and experiences, continually improving performance, adapting to changes, and staying up-to-date with evolving trends and patterns.
  • Exploration and Space Research: AI plays a crucial role in space exploration, enabling autonomous spacecraft, robotic exploration, and data analysis in remote and hazardous environments.

Related Links:

Bullet Train ProjectNational Deep Tech Start-Up Policy
Sendai Framework for Disaster ReductionOneWeb Constellation