Centre-Assam ULFA Peace Pact

Centre-Assam ULFA Peace Pact

Recent Development:

  1. ULFA (Pro-talk), the Assam-based militant group signed a peace government with the central and state governments of Assam.
  2. Under it, they have surrendered their weapon and pledged to join the mainstream engage in the peaceful democratic process established by law, and maintain the integrity of the country.
  3. The government has agreed that they will fulfill some demands of ULFA in a time-bound manner and also set up a committee to monitor it.


  • The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) is a militant outfit operating in Assam. It seeks to establish an independent state of socialist Assam with an armed struggle.
  • It was founded in 1979 by Paresh Baruah. The organization established ties with the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland in 1983, with the Burma-based Kachin Independent Army in 1987, and began its own operations in 1990.
  • Military operations against the ULFA by the Indian Army began in 1990 and continue into the present. The Government of India banned the organization in 1990 under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act citing it as a terrorist organization.

Main Demands of ULFA:

  • Constitutional and Political Demands for the protection of identity and resources of Indigenous people of Assam
  • Right to Land for Indigenous people of Assam.

Spread of ULFA:

  • In less than a decade of its formation, the ULFA emerged as one of the most powerful and violent insurgent outfits in Southeast Asia, largely because of the immense popularity it enjoyed during its struggle as well as its economic power which in turn helped it in bolstering its military capabilities.
  • In the early 1990s, ULFA launched an aggressive campaign with victims such as security forces, and political opponents, and blasting rail links.
  • In July 1991 the front captured and held 14 people for ransom, included in the abductees was an engineer and a national of the Soviet Union.
  • Gradually, the organization’s undue emphasis on the collection of money and weapons in the name of furthering the ‘revolution’ led to mindless violence throughout the state. It witnessed a period marked by growing disillusionment and anger among its supporters. In their bloody conflict with the security agencies, many innocent people lost their lives and several thousands were permanently maimed.