India -Bangladesh Relations

India -Bangladesh Relations

How is India’s Relation with Bangladesh?

Economic Ties:

  • The geographical proximity of India to Bangladesh has made it one of its biggest trading partners.¬†Bangladesh is the 6th¬†largest trade partner of India.
  • India has provided¬†duty-free quota-free access to Bangladesh¬†on all tariff lines except¬†tobacco and alcohol¬†under¬†the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)¬†since 2011.
  • The bilateral trade between the two countries has jumped to¬†USD 18.2 billion in 2021-22¬†as compared to USD 10.8 billion in 2020-21.
  • 6 Border Haats¬†(4 in Meghalaya and 2 in Tripura), have been approved by the Indian and Bangladesh governments.

Sharing of River Waters: 

  • India and Bangladesh share¬†54¬†common rivers. The¬†Ganga Waters Treaty¬†was signed in 1996 for sharing of waters of the river Ganga during the lean season (January 1-May 31).
  • Most recently, the¬†Kushiyara Pact¬†was signed that will benefit people in¬†Southern Assam¬†and the¬†Sylhet region in Bangladesh.


  • India and Bangladesh share¬†4096.7 Km. of the border,¬†which touches¬†Assam, Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and West Bengal.¬†Transit and trade through inland waterways¬†have been governed by a long-standing and time-tested protocol between Bangladesh and India.
  • Agartala-Akhaura Rail-Link¬†will be the first rail route between¬†Northeast India and Bangladesh.

Power and Energy Sector Cooperation: 

  • Energy sector cooperation between India and Bangladesh has also seen considerable progress in the last few years.
  • The¬†India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline Project,¬†signed in¬†2018, will¬†connect Siliguri¬†in West Bengal in India and¬†Parbatipur¬†in the Dinajpur district of Bangladesh.
  • India and Bangladesh have also signed the¬†Framework of Understanding (FOU) on Cooperation in the¬†Hydrocarbon Sector.


According to the Ministry of Tourism, Bangladesh accounted for the largest share of foreign tourist arrivals in India in 2020, including tens of thousands of people who came to the country for medical treatment.

What are the International Forums Where India and Bangladesh are Common Members?

  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
  • Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
  • Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IORA)

What are the Current Major Issues Between India and Bangladesh?

Teesta River Water Dispute: 

  • Teesta River¬†flows from India to the Bay of Bengal through Bangladesh. Almost half a dozen districts in West Bengal are dependent on this river. It is also a major source of¬†irrigation for the paddy-growing Rangpur region of Bangladesh.
  • Bangladesh complains that it does not get a fair share of the water. Since water is a state subject in India, the bottleneck lies in the¬†non-consensus between the state government of Bengal and the central government
  • Meanwhile,¬†no treaty has been signed yet to resolve the Teesta water-sharing¬†dispute between the two nations.

Illegal Migration: 

  • Illegal immigration from Bangladesh to India, which includes both¬†refugees and economic migrants, continues unabated.
  • A large influx of such migrants across the boundary has posed serious socio-economic-political problems for the people of Indian states bordering Bangladesh with¬†serious implications for its resources and national security.
  • The issue was further complicated when the¬†Rohingya refugees¬†originally from Myanmar¬†started infiltrating India through Bangladesh.
  • Also, the¬†National Register of Citizens (NRC),¬†which is expected to deter future migrants from Bangladesh from entering India illegally has triggered a major concern in Bangladesh.

Drug Smuggling & Trafficking:

There have been many incidences of cross-border drug smuggling & trafficking. Humans (especially children & women) are trafficked & various animal & bird species are poached through these borders.


  • The borders are susceptible to terrorist infiltration. Some outfits are trying to spread their tentacles across India, such as¬†Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB).
  • JMB is¬†listed as a terror group¬†by Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom.
  • Recently, The¬†National Investigation Agency¬†has filed a charge sheet against 6 members of the JMB in a¬†special court in Bhopal.

Growing Chinese Influence in Bangladesh:

  • At present,¬†Bangladesh is an active partner in the¬†Belt and Road Initiative¬†(BRI)¬†(India is not a part of BRI).
  • Also, Bangladesh imports¬†Chinese military equipment,¬†including submarines, in the defense sector which is a major concern for India‚Äôs National Security.

Related Links:

BIMSTECIndia ‚Äď Nepal Relations