- The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created following the explosion in 1974 of a nuclear device by a non-nuclear-weapon State (India), which demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred for peaceful purposes could be misused.
- It is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.
- The grouping has 48 participating governments and the NSG Guidelines are implemented by each member in accordance with its national laws and practices.
- The NSG makes decisions by consensus.
- It aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, while not hindering international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field.
- It facilitates the development of peaceful nuclear trade by providing the means whereby obligations to facilitate peaceful nuclear cooperation can be implemented in a manner consistent with international nuclear non-proliferation norms.
Benefits for India if it joins NSG:
- It will provide the country with access to foreign-sourced nuclear material and equipment, reducing the risk faced by foreign nuclear industries in doing business with India.
- Increasing the business of these nuclear materials will enable India to make better versions of nuclear breeders and export them to smaller countries, thereby increasing the economic growth of the country.
- The Make In India program will also see a boost if India becomes a member of NSG because nuclear power production would increase.
- It will also give India an opportunity to initiate talks about the plutonium trade for its thorium program and gain massive domestic profits.
- India aims to minimize the use of fossil fuels by 40 percent and use more natural and renewable resources of energy. This is possible if India gets access to nuclear raw materials and increases nuclear power generation
Why India is not able to join NSG?
- China’s denial of offering membership to India is another major cause of India not being able to make it to the list of NSG members.
- India has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) yet, which is essential for countries to sign to become a member of the NSG.
- Another reason is China’s interest in getting Pakistan membership of the NSG, which is also an NPT non-signatory. If Pakistan becomes a member, then no source can stop India from becoming a member. This is the reason why both India and Pakistan are unable to become member countries of NSG, despite persistence.
- Until and unless all the members do not agree with the decision, NSG is not liable to accept the invitation of any country to join NSG. All 48 members have not yet reached the consensus of letting India become an NSG member.