- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), or Clean India Mission is a country-wide campaign
- Launched by the Government of India on 2 October 2014, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi
- The mission aim is to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management.
- It is a restructured version of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan launched in 2009 that failed to achieve its intended targets.
- Phase 1 of the Swachh Bharat mission lasted till October 2019.
- The objectives of the first phase of the mission also included eradication of manual scavenging, generating awareness and bringing about a behavior change regarding sanitation practices, and augmentation of capacity at the local level.
- Phase 2 will be implemented between 2020–21 and 2024-25.
- The second phase of the mission aims to sustain the open defecation-free status and improve the management of solid and liquid waste.
- Globally, India had a worse record than even poorer regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Haiti, Ghana, etc. in terms of open defecation.
The objective of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
- Cleanliness and hygiene should be promoted holistically.
- To limit the number of people who defecate in the open.
- The goal is to improve the quality of life in rural communities.
- To promote the concept of environmentally friendly sanitation.
- To raise awareness of health and hygiene issues.
- To assist India in achieving Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6).
- To promote sanitation measures that are both cost-effective and efficient.
- To establish community-run sanitation systems.
- To concentrate on solid and liquid waste management methods that are scientific.
- To have a beneficial impact on gender issues and to encourage social inclusion.
Components of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Rural: The primary focus of this initiative is to enhance rural sanitation coverage and eradicate open defecation. It also emphasizes the effective management of solid and liquid waste.
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Urban: This program has three key objectives. Firstly, it aims to decrease the number of households practicing open defecation. Secondly, it seeks to replace pit latrines with sanitary facilities. Lastly, it aims to prevent the construction of unsanitary toilets in the future.
Funding pattern of PM Swachh Bharat Mission
- The construction of toilets will involve the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, the Ministry of Rural Development, and the States.
- For regular states, the funding ratio between the center and the state will be 75:25, while for the North Eastern states, it will be 90:10.
- Eligible beneficiaries will receive an Rs. 12,000 incentive for building individual household latrines in rural areas.
- The program also includes the provision of water storage facilities.
- Multiple sources contribute to the program’s funding, including budgetary assistance, support from international institutions like the World Bank, corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, and the Swachh Bharat Kosh.
Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) 2.0
The government in the Union Budget 2021 allocated Rs 1,41,678 crores for the Swachh Bharat Mission (U) 2.0. The components of SBM-Urban 2.0 are:
- New component – Wastewater treatment, including fecal sludge management in all ULBs with less than 1 lakh population
- Sustainable sanitation (construction of toilets)
- Solid Waste Management
- Information, Education and Communication, and
- Capacity building
Achievements expected out of SBM-Urban 2.0:
- ODF: norms say no visible feces shall be found in the environment and every household, as well as public/community institutions, should be using safe technology options for disposal of feces.
- ODF+: certification to all statutory towns. Norms say not a single person should be defecating and/or urinating in the open. All community and public toilets should be properly maintained and cleaned.
- ODF++: certification to all statutory towns with less than 1 lakh population. Under the ODF++ norms, proper treatment and management of fecal sludge/septage and sewage are safely managed and treated. There should be no discharge or dumping of untreated fecal sludge/septage and sewage in drains, water bodies, or open areas.
- Water+: certification to half of all the statutory towns with less than 1 lakh population. It is designed to ensure that no untreated wastewater is discharged into the open environment or water bodies.
- Rating of at least 3-star Garbage Free to all statutory towns as per Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA’s) Star Rating Protocol for Garbage Free cities.
- Bio-remediation of all legacy dumpsites.
- Swachh Surevkshan: MoHUA launched the Swachh Survekshan 2020 (SS 2020) league, a quarterly cleanliness assessment of cities and towns in India.