UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

Agra Fort

  • It is the 16th-century Mughal Monument called the Red Fort of Agra.
  • Jahangir Palace and the Khas Mahal built by Shah Jahan are part of Agra Fort.

Ajanta Caves

  • These are rock-cut caves.
  • There are a total of 29 caves.

Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda

  • Nalanda is the most ancient university in India.
  • The archaeological remains of a monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE are found here.

Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi

  • Monolithic pillars, palaces, temples, and monasteries are part of it.
  • It is considered the oldest Buddhist Sanctuary in existence.

Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park

  • Unexcavated archaeological, historic, and living cultural heritage properties are a part of it.
  • Structures built between the 8th and 14th centuries like fortifications, palaces, religious buildings, residential precincts, agricultural structures, and water installations; are found here.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

  • The former name of CST was Victoria Terminus.
  • It represents the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture in India.
  • British architect F. W. Stevens built and designed it.

Churches and Convents of Goa

  • The churches of the city which was the Portuguese capital signify the evangelization of Asia.

Elephanta Caves

  • Gharapuri Caves is the local name of Elephanta Caves.
  • There are seven caves.

Ellora Caves

  • There are 34 monasteries and temples.

Fatehpur Sikri

  • Mughal Emperor Akbar built it.
  • It had been a Mughal capital for 10 years.
  • Jama Masjid is a part of it.

Great Living Chola Temples

  • It includes temples like the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram.

Hampi

  • Hampi has served as the last capital of the Vijayanagar Empire.

Monuments at Mahabalipuram

  • The group is best known for Rathas, Mandapas, Giant open-air reliefs, etc.

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal

  • The monuments represent the Chalukyan art.
  • Hindu temples and Jain sanctuary are a part of it.

Hill Forts of Rajasthan

  • Chittorgarh fort; Kumbhalgarh fort; Sawai Madhopur fort; Jhalawar fort; Jaipur fort, and Jaisalmer fort are part of these hill forts.

Ahmadabad Walled City

  • Sultan Ahmad Shah founded the walled city in the 15th Century.

Humayun’s Tomb

  • It was built in 1570.
  • It stands as the first garden tomb in the Indian subcontinent.

Jaipur City

  • Sawai Jai Singh-II founded the city in 1727.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments

  • It contains Chandely Dynasty-built temples.
  • People dedicate temples to Hinduism and Jainism.

Mahabodhi Temple Complex

  • It is one of the four holy sites related to the Buddha’s life.

Mountain Railways of India

  • Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Nilgiri Mountain Railway, and Kalka Shimla Railway are three railways included in this site.

Qutub Minar and its Monuments

  • Qutb Minar was built in the 13th century.
  • It is the highest tower in India.

Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell)

  • It stands on the banks of Saraswati River.
  • It is built in the Maru-Gurjara architectural style.

Red Fort Complex

  • Shah Jahan built it as the palace fort of his capital.
  • Salimgarh Fort is a part of this complex.

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka

  • Dr V. S. Wakankar had discvoered the Bhimbetka Caves in 1958.

Sun Temple

  • King Narasimhadeva I built this in the 13th Century.
  • It represents the Kalinga architecture.

Taj Mahal

  • The Mughal Emperor built the Taj Mahal.
  • It stands on the Yamuna river banks.

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement

  • There are 17 sites on three continents.
  • Complexe du Capitole in Chandigarh, India is a part of this.

The Jantar Mantar

  • Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh II built the astronomical observation site.

Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai

  • Victorian Neo-Gothic public buildings and Art Deco in Mumbai buildings are part of this collection.

Great Himalayan National Park-Conservation Area

  • High alpine peaks, alpine meadows and riverine forests in this conservation area in Himachal Pradesh.

Kaziranga National Park

  • It is located in Golaghat and Nagaon, in the Karbi Anglong district of Assam in northeast India.
  • Read more about the Kaziranga National Park in the linked article.

Keoladeo National Park

  • Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary was the former name of this National Park.
  • The Siberian Crane is one of those aquatic birds that make this park a wintering area.

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

  • In 1973, Project Tiger included it as the first reserve in the network of tiger reserves.
  • It is also a biosphere reserve.

Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks

  • Nanda Devi West is the second-highest mountain in India.

Sundarbans National Park

  • It forms part of the Gangetic Delta.

Western Ghats

  • These are one of the biodiversity hotspots.
  • Get comprehensive notes on the Western Ghats in the linked article.

Khangchendzonga National Park

  • Mount Khangchendzonga is the world’s third-highest peak.

Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple

  • The Kakatiyan marvel made of sandstone, is a temple, built in the 13th century CE.
  • The structure has decorated beams and pillars of carved granite and dolerite with a distinctive and pyramidal Vimana made of lightweight porous bricks, so-called ‘floating bricks’, which reduced the weight of the roof structures.

Dholavira

  • Discovered by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi in 1968, Dholavira gets its name from the village in the Kutch district of Gujarat.
  • In ancient India, it has remained a commercial and manufacturing hub for about 1,500 years till its decline by 1500 BC.
  • It was the Indus Valley Civilization’s fifth-largest metropolis after Mohen-jo-Daro, Ganweriwala, Harappa and Rakhigarhi.

Santiniketan

  • Located in West Bengal’s Birbhum district, Santiniketan, meaning “abode of peace,” began its development in 1901 and is where Rabindranath Tagore laid the foundation for Visva-Bharati University.
  • It was established by Rabindranath Tagore.
  • Santiniketan has immense significance in human values, architectural and technological developments, monumental arts, town planning, and landscape design.
  • Efforts to get Santiniketan listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site date back to 2010, with the latest nomination proposal initiated in the 2020-21 fiscal year.
  • The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has been involved in restoring various structures in Santiniketan in recent years.

Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas

  • The temples are located in Belur, Halebidu and Somanathapura in the Hassan and Mysuru districts of Karnataka.
  • In 2022-23, India’s Culture Ministry recommended adding the temples, often described as ‘poetry carved in stone,’ to the list.
  • The temples included in the ensemble are:
  • Channakeshava Temple, Belur, Hassan district (Commissioned by King Vishnuvardhana, dedicated to God Vishnu)
  • Hoysalesvara Temple, Halebidu, Hassan district (Commissioned by King Vishnuvardhana, dedicated to God Shiva)
  • Kesava Temple, Somanathapura, Mysuru district (Consecrated by Somanatha Dandanayaka, a general of the Hoysala King Narasimha III, dedicated to God Vishnu)

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