Kavach System

Kavach System

Kavach System


  • Kavach System is a cab signaling train control system with anti-collision features developed by the Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO)in association with three Indian vendors.
  • It has been adopted as our National Automatic Train Protection (ATP) System.
  • It adheres to Safety Integrity Level-4 (SIL-4) standards and acts as a vigilant watchdog over the existing signaling system, alerting the loco pilot when approaching a ‘red signal’ and applying automatic brakes if necessary to prevent overshooting the signal.
  • The system also relays SoS messages during emergencies.
  • It features centralized live monitoring of train movements through the Network Monitor System.
  • The Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering & Telecommunications (IRISET) in Secunderabad, Telangana hosts the ‘Centre of Excellence’ for Kavach.

Components of Kavach System

  • Within the Kavach setup, designated railway stations along the intended route for deployment consist of three essential components.
  • First Component: The first component involves the incorporation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into the tracks.
  • RFID employs radio waves to identify objects or individuals and utilizes electromagnetic fields to automatically read wireless device information from a distance without physical contact or line of sight.
  • Second Component: The locomotive, serving as the driver’s cabin, is equipped with RFID readers, a computer, and brake interface equipment, comprising the second component.
  • Third Component: It encompasses radio infrastructure, such as towers and modems, strategically installed at railway stations to support the system’s functionality.

How does Kavach Work on Railway Systems?

  • The Traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS), with the help of equipment on board the locomotive and transmission towers at stations connected with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, helps in two-way communication between the station master and loco-pilot to convey any emergency message.
  • The instrument panel inside the cabin helps the loco-pilot know about the signal in advance without visual sighting and the permissible speeds to be maintained.
  • If a red signal is jumped and two trains come face to face on the same line, the technology automatically takes over and applies sudden brakes.
  • Additionally, the hooter activates by itself when approaching a level crossing which serves as a big boon to loco-pilots during fog conditions when visibility is low.

What is the Kavach Deployment Strategy?

  • Kavach System implementation is being taken up in a focused manner by the Railway Board.
  • The first priorities are the High-Density Routes and the New Delhi-Mumbai and New Delhi-Howrah Sections, as they have higher chances of accidents because the trains run closer to each other.
  • The second priority lines are the Highly Used Networks, the third ones are other Passenger High-Density Routes and the final priority is of course to cover all other routes.

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