National Quantum Mission

National Quantum Mission

National Quantum Mission


  • National Quantum Mission will be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST) under the Ministry of Science & Technology.
  • The mission planned for 2023-2031 aims to seed, nurture, and scale up scientific and industrial R&D and create a vibrant & innovative ecosystem in Quantum Technology (QT).
  • With the launch of this mission, India will be the seventh country to have a dedicated quantum mission after the US, Austria, Finland, France, Canada, and China.

Salient features of NQM

  • It will target developing intermediate-scale quantum computers with 50-100 physical qubits in 5 years and 50-1000 physical qubits in 8 years.
  • Just like bits (1 and 0) are the basic units by which computers process information, ‘qubits’ or ‘quantum bits’ are the units of process by quantum computers.
  • The mission will help develop high-sensitivity magnetometers for precision timing (atomic clocks), communications, and navigation.
  • It will also support the design and synthesis of quantum materials such as superconductors, novel semiconductor structures, and topological materials for the fabrication of quantum devices.
  • The mission will also help to develop:
    • Satellite-based secure quantum communications between ground stations range from 2000 km within India.
    • Long-distance secure quantum communications with other countries
    • Inter-city quantum key distribution over 2000 km
    • Multi-node Quantum network with quantum memories
  • Four Thematic Hubs (T-Hubs) would be set up in top academic and National R&D institutes on the domains of Quantum Technology:
    • Quantum computation
    • Quantum communication
    • Quantum Sensing & Metrology
    • Quantum Materials & Devices

Significance of National Quantum Mission

  • This will accelerate QT led economic growth and make India one of the leading nations in the development of Quantum Technologies & Applications (QTA) ranging from healthcare and diagnostics, defence, energy and data security.
  • It will work towards indigenously building quantum-based computers that are far more powerful and are able to solve the most complex problems in a highly secure manner.

What is Quantum Technology?

  • Quantum technology is a field of science and engineering that deals with the principles of quantum mechanics, which is the study of the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scale.
  • Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that describes the behavior of matter.

Advantages of Quantum Technology

  • Increased Computing Power: Quantum computers are much faster than the computers we have today. They also have the capability to solve complex problems that are currently beyond our reach.
  • Improved Security: Because they rely on principles of quantum mechanics, quantum encryption techniques are much more secure than traditional encryption methods.
  • Faster Communication: Quantum communication networks can transmit information faster and more securely than traditional networks, with the potential for completely unhackable communication.
  • Enhanced AI: Quantum machine learning algorithms can potentially enable more efficient and accurate training of Artificial Intelligence models.
  • Better Sensing and Measurement: Quantum sensors can detect extremely small changes in the environment, making them useful in areas such as medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and geological exploration.

Disadvantages of Quantum Technology

  • Expensive: The technology requires specialized equipment and materials which make it more expensive than the traditional technologies.
  • Limited Applications: Currently, quantum technology is only useful for specific applications such as cryptography, quantum computing, and quantum communication.
  • Sensitivity to Environment: Quantum technology is highly sensitive to environmental interference, such as temperature changes, magnetic fields, and vibrations.
  • Qubits are easily disrupted by their surroundings which can cause them to lose their quantum properties and make mistakes in calculations.
  • Limited Control: It is difficult to control and manipulate quantum systems. Quantum-powered AI could create unintended consequences.
  • Quantum-powered AI systems could potentially arrive at conclusions that are unexpected or difficult to explain as they operate on principles that are fundamentally different from classical computing.

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